Antenna Trainer comprises of following instruments / components.
No. Description Qty.
1 C-Band Transmitter with mounted Horn Antenna 1
2 C-Band Receiver cum power meter mounted on turntable 1
3 Dipole Antenna 1
4 Pyramidal Horn Antenna 2
5 Yagi-Uda Antenna 1
6 Helical Antenna 1
7 Microstrip Patch Antenna 1
8 Parabolic Reflector Antenna with dipole disk feed 1
9 Rhombic Antenna
10 Folded Dipole Antenna
11 4 Element Patch Antenna Array 1
12 Double Dipole Array 1
13 Cables SMA(m) to SMA(m) 2
All of the antennas are fed by panel mount SMA (f) connector to attach with transmitter and receiver. An operating manual which contains the comprehensive information about all items will be provided. It also describes how to use the apparatus and perform the experiments adequately.

Communication Trainer IPC-786 is low cost high performance communication teaching system. It is design to provide all the basic tools necessary to conduct experiments in the field of digital and analog communication engineering, it can also be used for R&D projects in communication. The IPC-786 has been designed to act as basic tool for carrying out experiments in the field of communication for technical colleges & universities undergraduate and graduate courses. IPC-AM-3000 has built in RF crystal oscillator, AF oscillator and regulated ±12Volts and +5Volts power supplies.
In addition there is a wide variety of plug in modules available for different types of experiments to be performed. This trainer is intended as a supplement to the textbook for communication course at junior, senior and graduate level student for electrical, electronics, computer engineering and computer science, in addition, it can also be very useful for engineers from the industry who design and apply communication system in their products. IPC-786 communication trainer comprises of a base unit, set of 19 modules and necessary interconnecting leads to carry out about twelve experiments in the field of analog & digital communication a comprehensive manual is also provided along with the trainer. On the request more experiments can be added in the trainer.
- Input voltage 220V 50 Hz AC
- 10.24 MHz crystal controlled RF signal source
- Low distortion 500Hz/1KHz AF signal source
- Clock with variable frequency 7Hz to 6 KHz.
- 2 Breadboards
- DC Supply voltage +12V, -12V and +5V at 100mA
- 7 sockets for modules.

Data Generator Module
NRZ1 11010100
NRZ2 011111111
NZR3 10101111
4Phase Clock Module:
this module outputs pulse trains of phases 0°, 90°, 180°, & 270°, at J2, J3, J4 & J5 respectively when clock signal is input at terminal J1.
FM Module:
This module generates frequency modulated carrier of center frequency about 88KHz at terminal J2 when AF modulating signal is applied at terminal J1.
Clock to Sine Converter Module:
This module generates synchronous sine and square wave output signal with controllable amplitude and frequency 1/8th of input clock.
Sample & Hold Module:
This module samples AF signal applied with sampling signal and outputs sampled signal.
Balanced Modulator:
The balanced modulator multiplies two input signals. It is used in synchronous demod of PSK & AMSC signals.
Low Pass Filter Module:
This module two 2nd order active LPF with cutoff frequencies of 500HZ and 1KHz.
FM Carrier Synchronizer Module:
This module generates AF signal phased locked with FM carrier signal input. The simultaneous display of AF and FM signals on scope results in stable waveforms on scope.
Pulse Time Modulation Module:
This module generates PWM and PPM signal when sample - and-Hold AF signal and sampling signal reapplies.
List of Experiment
- Familiarization with IPC-786.
- To study the sampling theorem.
- To study line coding & decoding techniques.
- To demonstrate the clock Gen. from Manchester code data.
- To study pulse time Modulation.
- To study two channel TDM system.
- To study FSK modulation.
- To study the PSK & ASK Modulation.
- To study PCM.
- To study AM.
- To study of Envelope Detector.
- To study SSB Modulation.
- To study FM.
- AM/SSB Modulation/Demodulation.
- NZR Data Generator.
- Manchester & RZ Encoder/Decoder.
- Clock & Data recovery Modules.
- PCM.
- Quadature amplitude Modulation/Demodulation.
- Delta Modulation.

  • Based on 89c51 CPU fault simulation system
  • Provision 2 trunks, 8 Extension lines
  • Block diagram of PABAX is on board
  • Working in 2 modes:
  • i. Trainer Mode
    ii. PABAX Mode
  • 70dbm cross attenuator
Experiments perform on the trainer are:
a. Redial
b. Extension to extension
c. To hold a line
d. Call parking
e. Talk trunk to extension
f. Call pickup
g. Call Transfer
h. Locking / Unlocking

The increase use of microwaves, in application ranging from satellite and terrestrial communication to high speed computing and data transmission, has resulted in short-fall of appropriately trained engineers and technicians.Over three quarters of all microwave circuits are now non-waveguide. The swing towards micro strip technology must be reflected in the courses offered in engineering education institutes
BE: recognizing the urgent need for suitable training equipment, have developed a micro strip trainer which will provide the means to investigate the technology and techniques used in this important subject area.
IPC-4800 Micro Strip Trainer comprises 18 passive circuit components, 2 active circuits and all the leads and connectors required to construct a verity of commonly used configurations, many of which incorporate microwave integrated circuits (MICs).The instruction manual supplied with IPC-4800 provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject in a manner which avoids unnecessary mathematical analysis and provides series of structured practical assignments.The only items of test equipment required are a digital multi meter and a 0-20V DC power supply.
IPC-4800 covers the training requirements for most courses in microwave engineering at undergraduate level courses.
  • Latest Microwave technology.
  • 2.0-3.5 GHz VCO.
  • 2.4GHz RF Bridge.
  • No costly test equipment required.
  • Safe low power output.
  • Conveniently packed for inventory control.
1 DC Biasing unit
1 Three-port circulator
1 Hybrid ring (rat-race) coupler
1 Ring resonator
1 RF bridge
1 Quadrate coupler
1 Unmatched load
1 Directional coupler
1 Wilkinson power divider
3 50 ohms loads
1 Short-circuit termination
1 20dB attenuator
1 Crystal detector
1 Low-pass filter
1 Matched load
1 Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)
1 S-band MMIC amplifier
8 SMA plug-plug connector
1 BNC - dual banana pins
1 DB(9) circular lead
2 4mm banana leads
1 Spanner
- VCO and detector calibration curves
Most of the components are packed in bright aluminum enclosures and their interconnection is by standard SMA coupling; providing secure but easily made joints. The trainer is designed to be used with basic test equipment: a DC power supply and a digital multi meter; in conjunction with the calibration curves supplied with each VCO and detector. Realistic quantitative results can easily be achieved with this simple set-up;however the quality of construction allows IPC-4800 to be used with more sophisticated microwave test instruments if these are available.
The manual provides a series of structured and stand alone assignments; using mostly the passive components: introduction to micro strip, microwave integrated circuit (MIC) technology and microwave measurement techniques. Further assignments encourage the student to build up complete systems incorporating the active circuits.The individual units of both active and passive components are designed for compatibility and easy interconnections, thus ensuring that circuits such as a line-of-sight link or simple frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) can be built and tested with minimum difficulty.
The basic principles and techniques of microwave signal processing using micro strip are simply and comprehensively presented, so that the trainer is ideal for use by engineers and technicians working in a variety of different areas of application, including:
  • Satellite communication
  • Radar
  • Surveillance-Security system
  • Instrumentation
  • Medical electronics
  • Data transmission
The practical work is presented under the following general headings:
  • Power source and detector action.
  • Action of a 3-port circulator.
  • Insertion loss measurement on a low-pass filter.
  • Measurement of return loss, reflection coefficient and VSWR of a filter, micro strip and commercial matched loads.
  • Matching investigations: reflection coefficient of unknown resistive load and its matching b ¼ λ g transformers and shunt stub.
  • Properties of power divider and retrace coupler.
  • Measurement of effective dielectric constant and line loss using a ring resonator.
  • DC biasing and MMIC amplifier investigations.
  • Quadrate coupler investigations.
  • RF bridge investigation.
  • Microwave radio link and antenna investigations.
IPC-4800 trainer complete experimental workstation is also available comprising the supply and a digital multi meter.
  • Patch Antenna
  • Two micro strip patch antenna supplied
  • Centre frequency: 2.7 +0.05GHz
  • Gain: 6dBi (typical)
  • Return loss: -17dB
  • Impedance: 50 ohm
Bias network
These components consists of three types of bias lines. Two a.c and one d.c all utilization the quarter wavelength transformer.
Bias line type Insertion loss (dB)
Direct d.c short 2.7GHz 0.02 0.02 0.02 Full band (2-4 GHz) 0.12 0.11 0.08
Three-port circulator
Insertion loss: 0.4dB (max at 3GHz)
Insertion loss: 0.5dB (max 2.5 - 2.9GHz)
Isolation : 16 - 24dB (full band 2.5 -2.9GHz)

Hybrid ring (Rat - race) Filter
This is a standard hybrid-ring (or rat-race) coupler
Centre Frequency : 2.7 +0.1GHz
Insertion loss (at center frequency):-3.2dB
Bandwidth: 400MHz
Isolation: 25dB (typical)
Impedance: 50

Ring Resonator

A looses-coupled resonant ring designed to resonate at a fundamental frequency of approximately 2.7GHz in its n = 2 mode. This component is used to measure the dielectric constant of the printed board.

Low Pass Filter

A 5-section, L-C type micro strip low pass filter.
Pass band (Nominal): DC- 2.7GHz
Stop Band: 3dB point at 3GHz (approx) rising to 20dB at 20% above cut-off.
Impedance: 50 ohm

Matched Load
A quarter wavelength long termination in a standard, 50, thick film, chip resistance. Centre frequency
Return loss:
Input impedance:

Unmatched Load
Three 50 input lines terminated in unknown resistive loads. One incorporate a λ/4 transformer with a centre frequency = 3GHz, and one uses an open-circulated shunt stub element.

Wilkinson Power Divider
Centre Frequency: 2.7 GHz
Operating band: 2-4GHz
Insertion loss: 3.5 +0.25dB
Tracking: 20dB (typical)
Impedance: 0.15dB (typical over full band 50 ohm)

Voltage Controlled Oscillator
The VCO is supplied with its own calibration curve and amplifier
Frequency range: 2.0 - 3.5 GHz
Tuning voltage: 1 - 20V
Power output: 10dBm (typical into 50 ohm)
Modulation output frequency: 1kHz (variable 900-1100Hz)
Modulation waveform: square wave
Modulator indicator: 2Hz flashing LED
DC supply voltage: 15V fix (fully protected)
DC supply current: 50mA (maximum)
Supply connector: 4mm sockets

S-band MMIC Amplifier
Gain: +15dB (typical)
Compression point: +12dBm (typical)
Frequency range: 1.5 - 4GHz
Input impedance: 50 ohm
Output impedance: 50 ohm
Supply voltage: 15V (fully protected)
Supply current: 40mA (typical)
Supply connector: 4mm sockets

RF Bridge
Frequency range: 2 - 4GHz
Built in diode detector:
Impedance: 50 ohm

Ancillary equipment
Power supply: 15V DC
0-20V DC variable
Regulated DC power supply PS-3000 is recommended

Power Requirements
Power supplies: 15VDC 1.5A
VCO tuning voltage: 0 - 30VDC 1.2.5A

Dimension & Weight (in protective case) Width: 430mm (17in)
Height: 310mm (12in)
Depth: 89mm (3.5in)
Weight: 4.5Kg (9.92lbs)

Tender Specification
A microwave integrated circuit trainer using micro strip components and operating in the 2 - 4GHz band. To contain 18 passive components. 3 active components and all necessary connectors and leads. Complete with instruction manual providing at least 11 assignment.


  • Based on basic telephone instrument circuits.
  • 8 Faults creating switches for different sections.
  • Circuit diagram on board describing different sections in telephone like
  • (a) Line Protector.
    (b) Voltage Dropper
    (c) Ringer.
    (d) Dialer.
    (e) Key Matrix.
    (f) Sound Amplifier.
    Test points to measure the signals in different sections. Can be use as normal telephone instrument. User's manual with fault finding.